In many developing countries, pollution control regulations are formulated at the national level, but their enforcement is the responsibility of local environmental protection bureaus.

For example, public servants rather than politicians played a more significant role in shaping the executive agencies, bearing out the bureau-shaping model.


In a comparison of real administrative costs and real term expenditure, the data support the bureau-shaping thesis that public servants work to maximise their budgets.

Punishments depended on the offence, but she could be warned by the wet-nursing inspection bureau, fined or dismissed.

In the area under investigation, the opposition garnered between 63% and 84% of the votes that were cast and valid, according to the ballot bureaus.

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Do these three forces explain the behavior of census bureaus in other nations?

The bureau’s capacity for effective enforcement is also constrained by its limited budget and personnel.

They are the public interest and the bureau-shaping models.

None has outlawed faculty participation in speaker’s bureaus, or participation in consulting arrangements that are thinly veiled marketing efforts.

The minister in turn gave instructions to his vice minister, the bureau chief, and the director of the related section.

He complained that wet-nurses who were turned away from the bureau were hired privately.

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The surgery setting was also more familiar, it was not usually far to travel, and it was less stigmatized than a bureau attendance.

The bureau was initially financed by the state, but the plan was that the fees would eventually make it self-supporting.

At no point does the bureau-shaping model acknowledge that a common culture may lead individuals to express preferences which do not reflect simple self-interest.

In keeping with the bureau-shaping models assertions, senior public servants tended to stay in parent departments, retained policy and strategic roles.

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